A gem is ornamental garments worn on the body, usually made ​​from precious metals and stones, but you can also use less valuable materials. In fact, virtually any type of material was used to make jewelry.
Among the jewelry items include bracelets, necklaces, rings, earrings, and hair ornaments, among others.
In its various forms, the jewels are carried by people of both sexes, in almost all human cultures, in almost every continent. It seems that humans tend to adorn themselves. In rare cases, the jewels are used for purposes of modesty, for example, to cover the nipples, but mainly for ornamental and aesthetic effect.
Nonmetallic Jewelry: defined as a gemstone improved. By a method of cutting precision and quality, a jeweler may increase the value of the raw material, in this case the gemstone. Its value is measured by various parameters depending on the gemstone, for example in diamond are the following, weight, purity, color and size.
Metal jewelry: they are made ​​of precious metals such as gold and silver, and platinum. In this case the jeweler-goldsmith transforms raw materials into ornaments as rings or earrings. Their quality is measured in carats in the case of gold, the silver is usually always the law, having a 925/1000 of proportion
The jewels have had many uses throughout history as a symbol of wealth, functional use, symbolism (to indicate status or membership), protection or artistic expression.
In most cultures, the jewels are seen as a symbol of wealth. The materials and labor required to make them have to make itself an intrinsic value, which has made them susceptible to being used as a way to accumulate wealth in large quantities. Therefore became a valid currency for all transactions (in cultures like India were part of the wedding ritual, where dowry was delivered in the form of gold jewelry).
Many of the objects used in jewelry (eg used as brooches and buckles closure), originally had a purely functional sense, but later were converted into increasingly decorative objects.
They were also used as symbols of belonging to a group, such as the case of the Christian crucifix or a Star of David in Judaism, or as a status symbol (eg practice in Western culture to wear a wedding ring during marriage).
The use of religious medals and amulets to ward off evil is common in some cultures; may take the form of symbols, stones, plants, animals, body parts or glyphs (eg the handwriting of the suras in the Quran Islamic art) .
Although artistic display has clearly been a function of jewelery from the very beginning, the other roles described above were most important. It was not until the late nineteenth century, with the work of such masters as Peter Carl Fabergé and René Lalique, that art began to take precedence over function and wealth. This trend has continued into modern times.
Traditionally jewelry creating valuable materials were used such as stones, coins, which are often laid in combination with precious metals in pure form or as alloys, as these exist in almost all known metals. Bronze, for example, was commonly used in Roman times. Modern fine jewelry includes gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, or silver. Most jewelry made in America and Europe is made with an alloy of gold, whose purity is measured in carats. The silver used in jewelery is usually sterling silver with 92.5% pure silver. In jewelry, another material used is stainless steel.
Other commonly used materials include glass, as in the case of the glazes, wood, worked in many ways, shells and other animal products (bone, ivory) clay patternable polymers, and even plastics.
In technical terms, perforated accounts are frequently used in jewelry. These can be glass, gemstones, metal, wood, clay … This type of work includes necklaces, bracelets, earrings, belts and rings. Accounts can be large or small, the smallest are known as beads, which together form a kind of tissue characteristic. There are several methods, one is an embroidery technique where the beads are sewn on fabric substrates to create necklaces and bracelets. The beaded embroidery, a craft that was popular during the Victorian era, is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewelry. This type of jewelry is also very popular in many African cultures.
Murano and Venetian masters evolved other glass work, both in manufacturing and in developing accounts of new materials such as Venetian glass.
Diamonds were first mined in India, although its existence was known in antiquity. One of rough diamonds (gem quality) larger than found is the Cullinan diamond. It was discovered in 1905, weighing 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g). One of his pieces is among the British Crown Jewels.
Currently its use is very popular in engagement rings, whose use dates back to the marriage.
There are a lot of precious stones used in jewelry. Among them are:
The amber stone of organic origin, composed of fossilized tree resin. Must be at least a million years to be classified as such, and some can have up to 120 million years.
Amethyst has been throughout history the most valuable gemstone in the quartz family. It is valued for its purple color, which may vary from shade lighter to darker.
Emeralds are among the leading gemstones (along with rubies and sapphires) and are known for their fine green to bluish green. They have been valued at over time: some historians describe that jade is normally associated with a green stone, but exists in other colors. It is linked to culture, history and tradition in Asia, with a strong symbolic content.
Jasper is a stone of chalcedony family, in a multitude of colors. Often presents unique and interesting patterns within the stone, like the variety “Jasper Landscape”, a type of jasper (often beige and brown), once polished seems simulate a hilly landscape.
Quartz belongs to a family of crystalline gemstones of all sizes and colors. Among the best-known types of quartz are rose quartz (a delicate pink color), smoky quartz (has shades of a translucent brown). Also well known for its colors are amethyst and citrine. Other crystals have other characteristics, such as rutile, quartz, a quartz type inclusions having needle-shaped rutile.
Rubies are known for their intense red color and are among the most prized gemstones millennia.
The most popular is the blue sapphire, known for his deep and intense blue color, but other colors are available. In the U.S., blue sapphires are the most popular and affordable of the three principal gemstones (emerald, ruby ​​and sapphire).
The turquoise deposits are found in few parts of the planet, but the most important producing region is southwest U.S. Turquoise is valued mainly for its attractive color, often a deep blue or greenish blue. It has been used in a variety of styles. Some turquoise contains dark brown streaks, which produce interesting contrasts with the bright blue color of the stone.
Many gemstones (as beads, coral, amber …) are classified as organic, which means that they are produced by living organisms, while others are inorganic, i.e. consisting of minerals and derived.
Some gems, such as amethyst, have been devalued because of imports and improved extraction methods. Others have been partially replaced by synthetic stones such as diamond, a stone that looks similar like cubic zirconia or zirconia.